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The Story of the Mountain
Mount Saint Mary's College and Seminary

Mary E. Meline & Edward F.X. McSween

Published by the Emmitsburg Chronicle, 1911

Chapter 6 | Chapter Index

Chapter 7: 1813-1818

In 1813 there were 64 boarding students at our College; six seminarians unsalaried, one lay professor at two hundred dollars a years; thirty other persons, including Faculty, overseer, employees and slaves. The receipts were $9,730; the outlay $9,872. The bills due the house, and good, amounted to $2,916, and the actual debt, less these, was $5,262, a debt that continued to increase till the crisis of 1881. There were many transactions in land, so that between April 11, 1805, and Dec. 31, 1824, no less than 27 real-estate deeds are found recorded, one of which is a mortgage by John Tessier, of St. Sulpice, Jan. 14, 1812, to Arnold and Chloe Elder.

At the Sisterhood that same year there were 19 Sisters; 40 boarders at $110 and 20 day scholars at $11 a year. The course of studies pursued in the College during the early years was necessarily very limited. In 1813, besides classes of reading, English grammar and practical arithmetic, there were two classes of French, taught by the President and Mr. Brute; five classes of Latin, the most advanced composed of twelve pupils translating Sallust and Virgil; two classes of Greek, a class of rational arithmetic, one of algebra, and one of geometry. Some few of the pupils, however, and most of the teachers were pursuing higher studies, which are not classified on the list that has been preserved. A course of rhetoric and one of logic, ethics and metaphysics were soon introduced. Latin, the language of the church, was always taught and nearly all the pupils were required to learn it. Greek was taught from 1810, though few as yet applied themselves to the study of it.

As has been intimated, Father Dubois had very soon to contend with debt, and in a letter to Bishop Conwell written in 1826 he explains his difficulties fully and forcibly. The six hundred dollars annually allowed by St. Sulpice was withdrawn soon after Father Brute came, although neither kitchen, refectory nor washhouse was built, and a debt of four thousand dollars was left. Then the gentlemen of the Mountain were to be forbidden to teach geography, mathematics, French, Greek and bookkeeping. And finally it was decided, as the farm was for the use of this Seminary, it was not right that the Baltimore house should have the charge of paying the annuity for which it had been purchased, and that Father Dubois should assume this, although it far exceeded the price at which he could have rented the farm. Surely none but a nature strong in confidence in and reliance upon God's Providence, which works in such mysterious ways, could have supported our beloved Father under such trials.

Meanwhile St. Joseph's was progressing, having adopted a modification of the rule of St. Vincent, in 1812. Ties of the closest interest and affection united the twin institutions, St. Joseph's and the Mountain ; not only were the pupils of each frequently members of the same family, but the Sisters had, many of them, brothers who were either lay pupils or students for the priesthood. The O'Conway brothers and the Butlers are instances. Either Father Dubois or Father Brute said the early Mass on Sundays at St. Joseph's, but the girls, every other Sunday, attended the High Mass at the Mountain church in a bod}', and remained for Vespers, the intervening time being spent roaming over the hills and through the woods. On alternate Sundays the late Mass was celebrated at the village, and the Sisters went thither.

Reference having been made several times to the "Grotto," it is well to describe it more in detail. Father Brute's fine taste did much to beautify the college precincts; whenever he found a spring and he was not obliged to go far to seek one he cleared it out, dedicated its sweet waters to some saint, erected about it a pavilion or bower, and formed a path to it which enticed by its romantic possibilities and gratified by their fruition; or he cleared from undergrowth some of the many spots from which the lovely view could be enjoyed upon the mountain-side, and in pleasant weather would lead his pupils to one of these retreats, and render the task of study charming from the exhilaration of the air and the inspiration of the surroundings. In the days of which we write, the stream which flows past the grotto was broader and more unruly than now, for the cutting-down of the trees upon the mountain near its source has had much to do with lessening its volume. Its course was, however, the same as now, except that it has been turned aside just above the Music Hall by a rocky dam, the so-called "Plunkett's Folly." There is an other dam higher up. and after a heavy rain the waters used to divide just below this, part following the old course and part rushing south, along what is now the approach to the Grotto. The little island thus formed was the origin of what was called the "Shaded Mound," it being somewhat elevated above the surrounding woodland. On the north side of this island stood a very old tree, beneath which the legend already given makes Father Dubois rest, and from around whose gnarled roots the soil had been washed away, leaving it at last very little ground to stand on. A regular recess or grotto was thus formed by the great trunk and thick roots which overhung the bed of the stream ; there being little water running in summer, the place was accessible by stooping, and the sandy bed of the brook formed the floor. Father Brute soon found out and took possession of this nook, although from Mother Seton's letter quoted a few pages back it would seem that she had already appropriated it; however, Father Brute made the entrance more comfortable and set up in the recess a cross, literally "not made by hands," for it was formed by the singular growth of the tree itself. Brute also attached crosses to the trees on the path between the church and the Grotto, so that one might make the "stations" on this beautiful mountain avenue.

The ascent to the church was steep and tiresome, particularly in cold of winter or when the snow lay, as it frequently did, several feet deep upon the path. One bitter cold morning the Faculty were surprised to find the steepest portion of the path nicely terraced with wood. As the work had been done in the darkness of the night or the early morning, there was much questioning and wonder as to the workman, who was soon discovered in Father Brute’; the idea suggested was eagerly seized upon and the boys went to work with a will to terrace the remainder of the pathway.

The causeway running zigzag up the hill from St. John's Well in the Seminarians' garden, also remains to testify to industry of master and disciples. "Te saxa loquuntur."

At this time all the boys were Catholics, as shown by this note of Father Brute's: "13th May, 1813: Mr. Monroe of the post office of Washington, recommended by Mr. E. Brent, came with his two sons, but Mr. Dubois has returned his expenses and refused to admit them, being Protestants. (Atlee, our last, discharged shortly before.)"

Mrs. Seton once lent her daughter Annina's note-book to the Father Brute and before returning it he wrote something in it himself. He never mastered "this dreadful English," but to the last his attempts to speak or write in our tongue, resulted in a mixture of French idioms literally translated, or phrases in the original, when, it would seem, he gave up in despair the efforts to clothe his thoughts in new habiliments and fell back upon the old ones. These notes from Annina's book are so touching and beautiful in their simplicity and the fragrance of his love for his Lord that we do not translate, the unction of his native language being unapproachable. His unconnected French, with the English words here and there is very quaint. Brute's thoughts on the Eve of Corpus Christi:

"Veille, Corpus Cheisti 1814.

Jour pluvieux. Mes larmes en torrent pour les calamites de mon pays. Je revenais a travers les bois de tourmenter de nouveau un pecheur de vieille date que rien n'ebranle. J'etais triste. J'entends trotter legerement derriere moi; puis ''hem, hem,'' a demi voix. Je me re-tourne, c'etait le pauvre petit negre de Madame McCahel qui a Pair d'un arbrisseau a demi froisse dont rien ne cherit le developpement; tout jeune et un air vieux—mais l'oeil si bon, si simple. II me regardait d'un terrain plus bas, son morceau de chapeau a la main, et tirant le pied derriere lui, mais avec un air! J'aurais ri sans que j'ai pense au grand Abraham, qui regardait, je pense, ainsi le Seigneur quand il veut prier pour Sodome. II se souve-nait de notre autre Dimanche soir ensemble, et la vache. ' Mon enfant, avez vous fait vot-re priere ce matin?'— 'Oui, Monsieur!'—' De tout votre coeur?'—'Oui, Mon­sieur. II faut faire comme cela tous les matins et tous les soirs.'—' Oui, Monsieur.'—Je continuais ma route. II a couru plus legerement qu'avant; et cette fois j'ai en-tendu sa petite voix; 'I go to church every Sunday!'— ' C'est bien;'—et je continuais marchant avec mes pen-sees. ' Every Sunday, Sir, I go to church.'—'Oh, bien, mon enfant; il faut bien aimer le bon Dieu!'—Et j 'ai tire une medaille et je la lui ai donnee! et il a tire le pied derriere avec un regard et une inclination! Je me suis retourne—a quatre pas de la il baisait sa medaille! II a couru tout le chemin apres moi. J'arrivals a la maison avec la pensee du commencement, mes yeux prets a repandre leurs grosses larmes: ' c'etait moi?' disais-je, comme Abraham devant le Seigneur ? Pauvre petit, il lui est plus agreable que moi! J'aurais du m'arreter d'avan-tage et lui faire un peu de catechisme. Pauvre enfant! nu-pieds, en 'rags ' et un morceau de chapeau—noir— ignorant; Sans mere, sans pere, sans ami, personne qui cherisse sa pauvre tige froissee, abandonnee; dormant sur le ' floor ' dans une guenille, courant le matin et le soir apres la vache—voila tout. Mais il est baptise, son Pere celeste est infiniment bon, le ciel s 'ouvrira pour lui! Se fermera—helas! pour tant de riches, de savants, d'opulents maitres de negres. O le ciel! Ce petit enfant! Coulez mes larmes."

Are you reminded, dear reader, of St. Francis Xavier, in the church tower of Malacca, filled with the Holy Ghost and breathing forth the words of that heart-stirring hymn: "Mi Deus, ego amo Te!"

George and Charles Williamson were students this year. They were of a prominent family, one of whose members, Rev. Adolphus Williamson, proposed later, as we shall see, to purchase the College.

This seems a fit place to refer to Father Dubois' ownership of slaves, which the laws of many states still recognized. The following spread upon his ledger explains the state of things now happily past and gone.

1814 July 18, The five slaves of Capt. Smith have arrived and Rev. Dubois is to pay $60 per an. for one, $40 for another, and nothing for the three others but their victuals and clothes, unless they shall prove to be of such service as will entitle them to some salary. Rev. Mr. Dubois, President of the Seminary, has consented to Nace being married; to Free Kata, on the following conditions which she has promised on her part to fulfil: 1st. That she will live here with her husband and be hired from year to year at the rate of three dollars per month, out of which she will clothe herself. Should she be sick for any length of time exceeding ten days yearly, the Rev. John Dubois is at liberty to deduct her board out of the wages of the other time at the rate of one dollar per week, and will pay her no wages during this time of sickness; but during the time of child-bed no deduction will be made out of the wages nor any charge for boarding, as her children are to be bound to Rd. John Dubois, as will be hereafter explained.

All her children born or to be born will be bound to Rd. John Dubois or his successor as President of the Seminary, until they are twenty-one years old, on the following conditions: that the girls if meeting with a suitable match approved by their mother, after they are eighteen years old, will be permitted to go free; other wise to remain at the Seminary until they are one and twenty. 2nd. That the oldest son, now three years old, will receive wages customary then for boys of his age after he is eighteen years old; that said wages shall be paid to his mother every year until he is twenty-one years old, who will keep it for him to begin with if he behaves well, or keep it herself if she thinks proper. The other boys or girls if any more should be born shall be bound soon after their birth until they are twenty-one years old as explained above. . . .

Father Dubois' life was still a struggle for the maintenance of his beloved institution. Two of his assistants had been raised to the priesthood, Michael Byrue in 1809 and James Moynahan in 1813. The first "child of the house," however, as we still call those who begin and end their education within the walls, to ascend the altar was John Hickey, who was ordained in 1814, and his name will appear often in these annals. The joy of this was offset by the withdrawal, the latter part of this same year, of Dubois' friend and confidant, Father Brute’. The latter, in April, 1815, went to France in the interests of the Baltimore College, as well as to bring back his large and valuable library. He took with him William Seton to place him with his mother's friends, the Filicchis, in Leghorn or Florence. It were difficult, surely, to overestimate the fortitude required in our founder to bear this parting from his friend and fellow-laborer. Everything fell back again on his individual shoulders. The President, however, "still continued his eminent services to St. Joseph's community, amid his other arduous occupations, which literally overwhelmed him, particularly since the departure of Rev. Mr. Brute’ for Europe." (White's "Life of Mother Seton," p. 368.)

He had one great comfort, however, in the arrival of the Sisters to keep house for him and his large family. St. Joseph's little community, on September 29th, 1814, had sent out Sister Rose White, Sister Susan Clossey and Sister Teresa Conway, who started in a wagon on that day for Philadelphia and took charge of St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum. This was the first mission from Emmitsburg. Three Sisters, Bridget Farrell, Anne Gruber and Anastasia Nabbs, coming to the Mountain in September, 1814. It was the second little colony sent from the Mother house at Emmitsburg, and the beautiful order and neatness which they established in the infirmary, clothes-room, etc., contributed much to the prosperity of the house and the happiness of its inmates, for Mother Seton was, as she writes, "full of desire to relieve the cares of their dear superior, and make some little return of his long labors for the house by trying to serve his interesting establishment".

On August 14, 1815, Augustin, Augustus and Alphonse Van Schalckwyk entered college. We shall say more of them later. We read of the boys contributing to build a ball alley this year.

As to Father Dubois, the care of all the souls around the Mountain rested on him, and only Divine grace could have supported him, for he neglected nothing and nobody only himself. They tell of him that for some time he had allowed his hair to grow so long as to touch his shoulders and one day arriving at St. Joseph's all shaven and shorn" he said laughingly to Mother Seton: "See how short my hair is! I met the barber in the woods who made me sit on a stone while he did his work; I had no time at the house." James Cretin on December 16, 1816, began to care for the farms of St. Mary's and St. Joseph's at $150 per annum, and displayed such extraordinary ability and industry that he got a bonus of $50.

At the Convent, in 1816, the yearly rate for board and tuition was $125; use of bed and bedding, $3.50; music, $44; French, $10; stationery, $3; doctor's fee (per private bill), or $3. Father Dubois wrote to William Seton at Leghorn: "Tell me the cost of eight or ten urns as flower pots for St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, as well that of half a dozen paintings 12 feet high for our church. The price asked by students for copies of the masters will be reasonable."

[Some will suspect the founder's business foresight from this letter and say "coming events cast their shadows before." It does not seem just the time to buy flower pots and oil paintings. This same year we find him buying six acres of land for $72 and forty more for $200, all very probably on credit. He is found to have been free and generous in giving, as well as easy in spending money. However business, especially south of "the Line" was, and is quite different from what it was, and is to the north of it. The biblical "give and take" is far more the rule down here, and final payment may be a very long way from original purchasing of land or goods. Hence some at least of the troubles Dubois met with both as President of the College and as Bishop of New York.]

"Our Seminary is more numerous than ever," he continues. "The garden will be finished this year, as well as the yard, which will be planted with trees this fall. I bought all the woodlands between us and the plantation which formerly belonged to Wyse. The dormitories are plastered; I built a corn house and granary over the cave (a cellar built in 1808 for the preservation of potatoes and other vegetables), and by building a good brick wall around the spring have succeeded in carrying the water to a milk house, which I have formed under the stone-house (the present, 1908, chapel), then to a long trough near where the pump was, with twenty-four spigots for twenty-four boys to wash at the same time. The same trough conveys water underground into the kitchen and still the spring has enough water to send into the garden through pipes, with a spout of water in the middle of it which rises from ten to fifteen feet. I tell you all that, my dearest friend, because it has been the spot of your infancy and that it naturally recalls to your mind many sweet remembrances. "Here is a letter to Brute’, then absent in Europe:" From the little room of the little President.

The 10th of January, 1816

"I must follow the example of my brother and write at odd moments or I cannot write at all. May God bless my brother this year a small portion of time, but may He also bless above in all Eternity. Oh, how I have thought of you during these feasts, more perhaps than during all your voyage! Then I had hope I have hope no more. I have wished to write to you a thousand times and my miserable heart could express nothing it could only unite itself with that of my brother. I was pressed, pushed, hurried not a moment to myself only a moment to give to the corporal and spiritual. I might have been able, however, to write a few lines, but I wished, I thought it proper, at first to write to our thrice honored Superior. But what could I say to him? I had much to say and no time to arrange my thoughts, still less of coolness (sangfroid) for the expression of them. I have begun to remind him of my situation and to announce my resolution. Do not blame me, my brother you will see what I have written to him please ask that it be read publicly at the council. All passed sweetly here on Christmas day. I had announced the first Mass at 6 o'clock in the morning. Having been obliged to hear confessions up to the very minute, I believe that our good Master called me to the crib. I went to say the (Midnight) Mass, a low one. I called the young men, our young shepherds whom our Jesus calls to conduct his flock and all good souls who watch them, and we made the watch the sweetest that I have ever had. In that moment all was most profoundly calm without and within. I have never experienced more of peace and of devotion. After the Mass each one retired quietly after having rendered Glory to God. I went to rest for a moment at M. Duhamel's. At four o'clock some good soul knocked ; I went back to the church about 6 o'clock. The table of our dear Master was full within and without the Sanctuary. The good Hickey, who had already said two Masses at St. Joseph's, said another at eight o'clock on the Mountain. At 11 o'clock I said the last. I think nothing too much, but I do it ill. My heart is dry, how can it lead others? Our Jesus has pity on me however. He has done good without me. In general, there is more zeal and piety than I have seen for a long time. A large number for first communion about thirty. Multi vocati, quot electi? After Mass was called to good Sister Kitty, who was knocking at the door of Eternity. She had come down stairs that morning, heard Mass and received Communion but she was dying. I gave her the holy Viaticum. The two communions consequently in this one day, as if our good Master wished to make her partake of the happiness which we, priests, have. At 9 o'clock she was sleeping in the arms of Jesus it was the usual hour for retiring oh, the beautiful day which has succeeded to this short night!"

"January 21, 1816. All as usual. Last Friday, called, on my reaching the Sisterhood, to assist poor little Shuley at Aloys Elder's. Not so ill as they had represented him. I murmured a little at having been interrupted, not only in my spiritual instruction of the children for their first communion, but of my classes. I was well punished for it, for on the 15th they called me hurriedly to assist good Samuel Green, who, they said, was very ill. I went quickly that time without complaining, and I returned at about 2 o'clock in the morning to endeavor to get a little sleep in order to keep up the next day. I had intended henceforth to keep a Journal very exactly, but I have been so ground down that I have forgotten everything. God be praised for all! Pray for your poor brother and friend. J. D."

"And the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David." Father Dubois was not satisfied with the superintendence of affairs exterior to the College, he also felt a great interest in the cuisine, and this was but natural, he being a Frenchman. The domestic matters were under the care, as we have seen, of the Sisters, and the one who presided at the cooking-stove was tall and stately, while Father Dubois was short and delicate-looking. The good President's frequent visits to the kitchen proved rather annoying and as he seemed impervious to hints, Sister Ann was at her wit's end for a- scheme by which to exclude him. At last, an especially good dinner was being prepared one day for some expected guests and Father Dubois was in and out of the kitchen every few moments, lifting a lid here and shaking a saucepan there, besides making various suggestions and comments. To these remarks Sister Ann listened silently, but at last as quietly untied her official apron and presented it with an air worthy of the Grande Demoiselle herself. Father Dubois looked at it, then at her and reading her meaning in her eyes and the laugh she could not entirely control, clapped his hands to his head and ran out of the kitchen, exclaiming" Mon Dieu ! Non! Non!"

It was, it is needless to add, the last of his visits. Sister Ann realized that;

Tis not victory to win the field, Unless we make our enemies to yield More to our justice, than our force; and so As well instruct, as overcome our foe.

Aug. 21, 1816, the rules were modified on various points, the hour for rising being half-past four for the seminarians and five o'clock for the boys, but all climbed the hill for daily mass at half-past five.

The names of many prominent families are found on the roll of boys this year. Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of the first Consul, entered Aug. 29, 1814, and remained three years. In his last year he was first in the highest English class of 17 students. Ferdinand Chatard, Charles Harper, Luke Tiernan, William Tiernan, Charles White, Thomas Jenkins are in the same class. Bonaparte in his last year was also in the highest French and Arithmetic classes and in the next to highest Latin. In a list made of the boys of the Latin-English class in 1816 he is fifth in eleven.

His uncle was fretting away the last years of his strenuous existence in the enforced and intolerable idleness of the African rock, while Jerome led his happy student life at the Mountain. Here is one of his letters to Mrs. Seton:

Mount St. Mary's seminary June 21ST (1816)

My Dear Mother: I am very anxious to get an Agnus Dei before I go home in order to preserve me in the vacation from the dangers that will surround me. I will keep it as a memorial of kindness and love for your little child who always thinks of you with respect and love and who will think of you with gratitude also especially if I shall have an Agnus Dei as a present from you. I expect to start for Baltimore on Monday morning in Mr. Harper's carriage which will arrive next Sunday evening. O how happy am I at present, having so lately received my Dear Saviour into my poor unworthy heart. O may I long remember that Happy Day; may I never violate the promises I then read.

Your Dear child in God, Jerome N. Bonaparte.

He had the honor of reading the Act of Consecration at the First Communion of himself and other boys.) Meanwhile the " Little President" was busied and buried in work. On the 30th of December, 1816, he writes :

"It has been impossible for me to give three days to prayer. I fill a very disagreeable place. It seems that this is my Seminary. Instead of looking kindly on my endeavors, I am attacked because I don't gain more than two or three thousand dollars a year. Without getting angry, I positively resign. I await the decision of our gentlemen in France. If they expel me from St. Sulpice, I will go to Bishop Flaget to consecrate to the mission the remainder of a life which is drying up here in this whirl of temporal business."

He was a member of the Community of St. Sulpice, but was charged with the management of the Mountain, which of course was Sulpician property, and was expected to " make it pay. "In September, 1817, it would appear that Mt. St. Mary's owed the Baltimore house $2020.61 and had paid only $730.21," so writes to him John Hickey, who had been with­drawn from the Mountain to make his higher studies at St. Mary's Baltimore. There he was ordained, being the first real Mountaineer to receive the priesthood.

The two establishments of Baltimore and the Mountain, belonging to the same society, both extremely embarrassed for money, both drawing from the same sources, both dependent on the assistance of tutors chosen from their pupils, and each trying to get or retain these latter, all this caused a friction and a complication that gave trouble to each, but weighed far more heavily on the man who was "treading the wine press alone." There were several priests at St. Mary's College and Seminary, one only at the Mountain institution.

Dubois was anxious to have Brute’ back and Brute* himself, who had been at the Baltimore house since November, 1815, had requested to be sent back. Dubois writes to Brute’:

"25 December, 1817.

"It is the day of the Saviour's birth, on which after a good day's work I take up my pen in order to refresh myself with my brother. I am too sleepy to be able to occupy myself with any­thing serious, but it seems to me that I can sit up with my brother. It is seven o'clock in the evening and I await the hour of prayer before retiring. I am far from believing as you think that they persevere at Baltimore in refusing you our united requests. I believe that it is necessary to await the return of M. Harent, from whose journey I hope little, seeing the mis­fortune of the Islands (the West Indies, whither M. Harent had gone to make collections and where he died the following year), or at most to wait for vacation. I think that only reasonable, but I am going to write in order to have a categorical reply on the subject. If they refuse me I know the part which I will have to take."

He continues two days later :

"The 27th December. St. John, who rested upon the bosom of our Lord (oh, what a furnace of love!):

" I was obliged to interrupt, as you see, the letter which I had commenced. I have just returned from the Sisters, after having said the high Mass, and I resume my pen. I have read the letter to which our good Superior refers. ... As M. Tessier wrote me that the time for putting M. Damphoux in your place has not yet come. I hope that the idea which you have that time will never come is not well grounded."

Mr. (that is the Rev.) Damphoux in fact became Superior in Baltimore Seminary soon after, and Mr. Brute returned to the Mountain. [The custom of calling priests "Mister " lasted at the Mountain till the associates of Dubois and Brute had gone to the Lord, nay even till the end of Dr. McCaffrey's life. Cardinal McCloskey used the same term alternately with " Father." It is embarrassing for the chronicler who cannot be sure that a priest is intended when "Mister " is applied to a name.]

. . . Some further idea of the annoyances to which the President was subject may be had from little items such as these:

1817. Jan. 2. Nace, "belonging to the Seminary, went out working" and the various amounts earned by him are charged against those to whom the institution hired him, for instance: 7 days work at St. Joseph's @ 75 cts. a day; cutting wood @ 50 cts a cord; putting up fence 50 cts; etc. etc.

Aug. 27, 1817 "You will please to employ the Physician for the year, I pay­ing the same whether my boy requires him or not. You will please allow him 12jc. per week for spending money provided he merits" by fulfilling his duties."

Other parents made different arrangements, and we shall see later what bother accrued from their various methods.

... In January 1817 the Maryland Legislature by a vote of 35 to 24 granted a charter to the Sisterhood, and the joint trustees, of whom Dnbois was one, made over to them the property.

Chapter Index | Chapter 8

Historical Society Note: In honor of the 200th anniversary of the founding of the Grotto of Lourdes we'll be posting at least 2 new chapter every week.

Special thanks to John Miller for his efforts in scanning the book's contents and converting it into the web page you are now viewing.