By John B. Horner
Prelude to the Address
The evening of November 18, 1863, at the Diamond in Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania, was unique in several ways. Many hundreds of people
crowded into the town center of small borough, normally populated
with about 2,400 or so. Each came in anticipation of catching a
glimpse of or if more fortunate to shake the hand of President
President Lincoln had been invited, almost as an afterthought,
to make "a few appropriate remarks" at the dedication of Soldier's
National Cemetery the next day. He was a guest of Attorney David
Wills in a comfortable home on the southeast quadrant of the
Diamond. Sgt. H. Paxton Bigham of Company B, 21st Pennsylvania
Cavalry, was assigned by his superior officer, Capt. Robert Bell,
to guard the President during his brief stay in Gettysburg.
Earlier in the evening, Sgt. Bigham had taken his station
outside the President's bedroom door on the second floor of Judge
Wills' house. One floor below, his younger brother, Rush, stood
guard at the street door. Soon after taking their stations, a
telegram for Mr. Lincoln was passed to his nearest guard, who then
gently tapped on the President's door. The President, after
reading it, resumed his seat, leaving the door partly open.
After pondering the message for a few moments, he quickly
walked back to the door, and addressing his guard with
affectionate tenderness, as if talking to a close friend, said,
"Guard, this message brought me good news. I was not sure I could
come to Gettysburg because my son, Tad, was seriously ill in the
White House. He improved the day before I left Washington and this
dispatch tells me he is very much better. Thank God for this news.
I can rest better tonight."
Mr. Lincoln then sat at his desk in the room, working further
on his draft of the speech for the following day. At about 11
o'clock, the President summoned his guard to accompany him for the
short trip to the home of Robert G. Harper, editor of the
Gettysburg Sentinel. Into his pocket was tucked his draft of the
While the President was at the Harper House, the National Union
Musical Association of Baltimore, popularly known as the Baltimore
Glee Club, directed by Wilson G. Horner, serenaded the President.
The group, which was scheduled to furnish vocal music at the
dedication as well, sang "We Are Coming, Father Abraham, Three
Hundred Thousand Strong," a patriotic song of the day.
By this time, a large crowd had gathered. The President, upon
coming to the door, addressed Sgt. Bigham and said, "I wish to
return to my room you clear the way and I will hold onto your
coattails." The return through the crowd was made without incident
and nothing further occurred during the night to disturb the rest
of Gettysburg's distinguished guest.
Lincoln Speaks at the Cemetery
At about 11 o'clock on the morning of November 19, 1863, an
hour behind schedule, a formidable procession wound its way up
Baltimore Street in Gettysburg toward the Soldier's National
Cemetery, the first of what would prove to be hundreds of parades
commemorating the momentous events of that day. The procession
turned right onto Steinwehr Avenue, and after one block went left
onto the Taneytown Road and into the cemetery.
Sgt. Bigham and a part of his company were on special guard
duty and observed that ex-Senator Edward Everett, the orator of
the day, delivered his address, lasting an hour and fifty-seven
minutes, to "rounds of applause."
Then Mr. Lincoln stepped to the front of the platform. After
adjusting his glasses, he discarded the manuscript of his speech
carefully prepared in Washington, took from his coat pocket the
same paper he had been studying the night before, and began the
greatest speech of his career. During the speech, Sgt. Bigham,
along with others from his troop, stayed faithfully at their
posts, protecting the President.
Among eyewitnesses, there is far from unanimity about the
audience response to Lincoln's address. A reporter from the
Baltimore American wrote that during the speech there was applause
after the words equal, detract, did here, carried on, in vain, and
"long continued applause" at the end. Mary I. Creigh wrote 50
years later in The Continent, a Presbyterian publication, "I
remember well the day in November when Lincoln spoke.... What
seems so pitiful to me was that there was no applause [italics
added] when he finished and he thought he had made a failure and
this additional weight was added to the burden so heavy already."
H.M. Irwin wrote in the same publication, "There was no great
volume or vociferation in the applause that followed."
President Lincoln likely finished his speech to scattered
applause, the import of its message not yet fully appreciated. It
is fair to assume that by the time he concluded his "few
appropriate remarks" the attention span of the audience had
already been stretched beyond its reasonable limits. After all,
the crowd had been listening to Edward Everett for nearly two
hours. Some had wandered off into other parts of the cemetery;
others had walked back down town or simply gone to their homes.
Mr. Lincoln was moved to confide in Everett that he feared he
had disappointed his people, whereupon Everett said, "My speech
will be soon forgotten, but yours will live forever." The
sixteenth President would later furnish a copy of his address to
Edward Everett at the latter's request, and it is this copy of the
five still extant in which the words under God are first used.
This copy is now in the Illinois State Historical Library in
Springfield, the only copy on continuous public display.
Lincoln's Gettysburg Legacy
Sgt. Bigham observed many years later that of all the cities,
highways, schools, public buildings, and monuments dedicated to
Lincoln's memory, the most lasting memorial would always be a
two-minute speech he made over the fallen heroes of Gettysburg
that day at the Soldier's National Cemetery.
Lincoln's speech is known and memorized all over the world.
Immigrants and school children recite it. The text can be viewed
in a stained glass window in a famous English boy's school. His
address points up the revolutionary purpose of our national
origin, stresses the significance of our contemporary situation,
and has deep and vital meaning for Americans today as well as for
all peoples who desire to achieve or keep their freedom. M.
Historian George R. Pro well wrote in 1926 in the York
Dispatch, On the day of my visit to Chambersburg, the tribute to
Abraham Lincoln by David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Great
Britain, delivered when he visited the tomb of Lincoln, was read
to the audience at the home of the veteran soldier [Paxton Bigham]....
Following is the exact language of the graceful tribute...:
"There are only a few whose names have become a legend among
men. Among them is conspicuously stamped the name of Abraham
Lincoln. His fame is wider today than at his death and is widening
every year. He belongs to mankind, in every race, in every clime,
in every age a great man of all time, for all parties, for all
lands, and for all races of men."
John Burns Local Patriot
John was more than 70 years old and a veteran of the war of
1812 and the Mexican war. Because of his age, he wasn't allowed to
reenlist for the war between the states, but when the armies
approached Gettysburg, he was ready.
John joined the Union lines and, with his long hunting rifle,
he displayed some outstanding sharp shooting skills. He was
wounded and fell into Confederate hands, but he was a survivor.
When Lincoln visited Gettysburg, John Burns was one of the
citizens he asked to meet personally. Arthur Kennell, retired
superintendent, Evergreen Cemetery, Gettysburg
Later in the day, at the Presbyterian Church of Gettysburg, on
the corner of Baltimore and East High Streets, Lincoln attended a
patriotic service with John Burns, a local patriot. The Lincoln
party had to leave the services early as the time was nearing for
the return trip to Washington. Lincoln's train departed from the
rail station on Carlisle Street, one block north of the Diamond,
at about 7 o'clock that evening.
From Farm Boy to Presidential Guard
Hugh Paxton Bigham was raised a farm boy within five miles of
Gettysburg. He was the fourth of five sons of James and Agnes
McGaughey Bigham of Freedom Township, born December 12, 1840, and
named in honor of the Rev. William Paxton, pastor of Lower Marsh
Creek Presbyterian Church.
Paxton Bigham attended country schools. His father, James, died
when Paxton was 14 and his brother Rush was 12. By that time,
their brother William apparently owned the farm on which he lived.
James Bigham's will 1) made the eldest son William executor and
guardian of three underage brothers, 2) gave the home farm to
older brothers James and John, and 3) gave another farm to Paxton
and Rush under two conditions: that James and John farm the land
until Rush was 21, and that James and John were to manure the
fields and keep up the fences.
Paxton Bigham left home when he was 17. He worked as a dry
goods clerk in stores in Gettysburg and Springfield, Ohio. In
1862, rumblings of war brought him back to Pennsylvania.
Pressed Into Service
At the age of 23, on June 16, 1863,
Hugh Paxton Bigham enlisted
for the Union in an independent cavalry troop Company B of Home
Guards composed entirely of young men from the vicinity of
Gettysburg. This full company was accepted by the Pennsylvania
governor and sworn in for six months by Major Heller. H.P. Bigham
served as Orderly Sergeant, or First Sergeant,
of Company B, 21st
Company B's main duty, because of its members' knowledge of the
mountains in the area, was that of scouting (some would say
spying) during the threatening days of the enemy's appearance in
Pennsylvania immediately preceding the Battle.
On one occasion shortly after the troop's formation, Capt.
Robert Bell, its commander, dispatched Sgt. Bigham and four
comrades to a point 15 miles from Gettysburg to observe the
approach of the enemy. Confederate scouts numbering 50 or so met
them and a detachment of 18 opposing cavalrymen was sent out to
Bigham and his comrades were so outnumbered and lacking in
arms they had no choice but to retreat, and this they did as
fast as their horses would carry them. The pursuit continued
for miles, with the Rebels only a few hundred yards behind,
when finally relief was furnished by a friendly citizen of the
community who lay in ambush. A well-placed shot brought down
one of the pursuers and the remainder became somewhat
disorganized, thus saving Bigham and his comrades from an
Just 10 days after he enlisted, on June 26, 1863, the cavalry
troop of which Sgt. Bigham was a member was chased out of
Gettysburg. The young lady to whom Sgt. Bigham was betrothed was
Miss Elizabeth McCright (McCreight), born on July 7, 1837, in
Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. For several years, she
had resided with an uncle, William Douglas, of Gettysburg, and as
Confederate and Union troops gathered in the area, she was caring
for two elderly aunts, one of whom was ill. Elizabeth was
anxiously watching from her doorway as her fiancé, H. Paxton
Bigham, and the rest of Company B made their ignominious
On the Home Front
Many Bigham family members remained in the area during the
Battle of Gettysburg. William, Paxton's eldest brother, led his
own horses to safety, while his wife and children fled to her
relatives on the Horner Homestead (the author's home). This left
the house deserted. The Confederates moved in and stole all the
food such as cattle, hogs, chickens, honey, wheat, flour, and
preserved products. They vandalized the furniture and house.
Consequently, until the following year's harvest, William's
family was dependent on the generosity of relatives and friends.
For a further description of these events, see Jimmy at
Gettysburg, first in this series.
After watching her fiancé being chased from Gettysburg as the
Battle unfolded, Elizabeth McCright helped to carry her elderly
aunt to the basement where she found it necessary to keep house,
away from danger of shells.
After the Battle, Elizabeth and the other women of the town
made dressings and nursed the wounded who were hospitalized in
churches and public buildings. She said that arms and legs were
piled up to the level of the window sills of the Adams County
courthouse, which was used as a surgery and hospital.
One Confederate soldier, left behind when the troops
retreated, was so badly wounded that he was not expected to
live. Elizabeth took the wounded soldier to her home and nursed
him back to health. He already had a wife in the South, and
Elizabeth was promised to another man. However, they wrote to
each other at intervals over the years until the soldier's
Gettysburg's First Casualties
Most historians accept that George Washington Sandoe, Company
B, 21st Pa. Cavalry, was the first Union casualty at the Battle
of Gettysburg. He was shot by a Rebel patrol south of Gettysburg
along the Baltimore Pike near the Nathaniel Lightner house.
George Sandoe and William Lightner, members of Company B, were
riding toward the Pike, coming across the McAllister field from
the direction of Rock Creek. Owing to a growth of bushes along
the fence, they did not discover the Confederate pickets until
they were ordered to halt. Lightner at once jumped his horse
across the fence and escaped by riding rapidly down the Pike.
Sandoe's horse fell in making the leap, and in attempting to
escape by riding back in the direction from which he came,
Sandoe was shot.
Sandoe is interred in the Cemetery of the Mt. Joy Lutheran
Church, on the Taneytown Road, south of Gettysburg, as are Co. B
fellow members William G. Black, Josephus B. Mills, and Benjamin
F. Sterner. Every year on the Sunday nearest Memorial Day,
children strew flowers at the graves of all veterans buried
The "well-placed shot which brought down one of the pursuers"
of Sgt. Bigham's scouting party resulted in the demise of a
Confederate soldier who died the next day at Caledonia Furnace
in the mountains west of Gettysburg. This Confederate is
believed to be the first Rebel killed on Pennsylvania soil.
Company B was attached to the 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry soon
thereafter, so we may safely conclude that the first Union
casualty as well as the first Confederate casualty preceding the
Battle of Gettysburg both had a direct relationship to Company B,
21st Pa. Cavalry.
Company B hastened to Hanover, York, Wrightsville, and finally
to the state capital, Harrisburg. There, the command was merged
with the 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry and remained for several days
while the soldiers were being properly equipped. Officers of the
21st Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry were: Captain
Robert Bell, 1st Lieutenant James Mickley, 2nd Lieutenant Henry
Sgt. Bigham and his associates were then stationed at Columbia,
Pennsylvania, on the lower Susquehanna. Although natives of
Gettysburg and the town's first defenders, they were denied the
privilege of participating in the historic confrontation in their
hometown in early July 1863.
Following those deadly days in July, Sgt. Bigham and his
cavalry troop were sent back, to Gettysburg to guard the town and
the captured Confederate prisoners. They were still there
four months later when President Lincoln arrived for the
Soldier's National Cemetery dedication. Rush was assigned to guard
the street door of the Wills House the night of November 18, 1863,
while Paxton was stationed on the second floor by President
Lincoln's bedroom door.
In the Aftermath
Sgt. Bigham was mustered out of the Union's service at
Chambersburg, on Febuary 20, 1864. He did not re-enlist because he
had developed a fever. However, he did pay $300 to the United
States government so he would not be drafted, a common practice
during the Civil War.
Merchant, Postmaster, Father, Elder
The ceremony of H. Paxton Bigham's marriage to Elizabeth
McCright took place on March 3, 1864, at Windsor, Ohio.
Later in that year, Adam Rebert, Sheriff of Adams County,
seized the property of J. Alex Harper and placed this notice in a
Sheriff Sale December 17,1864
A tract of land, situate in Cumberland Township adjoining lands
of George Weikert on the north, west and south, and on the east
bounded by the public road leading from Gettysburg to Emmitsburg
containing four acres, one hundred twenty perches, improved with a
one and one-half story Framed Weatherboard House, with a brick
out-kitchen, Frame Weatherboard Coach Shop, a large Chicken House,
a well full of water with pump in it near the door, some fruit
trees on said tract.
Hugh Paxton Bigham was the highest bidder at public auction and
became the proprietor of a general store in Green Mount.
According to records of the United States Post Office
Department, H. Paxton Bigham was appointed the fifth Postmaster of
Green Mount Post Office on January 21, 1865, and served
continuously for more than 48 years until the Post Office was
discontinued September 30, 1913. On December 1, 1895, the name of
the Office was changed from Green Mount to Greenmount.
The H. Paxton Bighams had seven children, three sons (James,
William, and Hugh Paxton, Jr.) and four daughters (Agnes McGaughey,
Margaret Eliza, Mary Arnold, and Jennie Belle). Four of them all
three sons and their daughter Agnes died within 1 to 13 months
after they were born. Of the three daughters, only Mary Arnold,
wed to the Rev. W.J.D. Scherer, had children: Margaret Roseman,
Mary Elizabeth, and Jennie Belle Scherer. Only one of these three
daughters, Jennie Belle Scherer Detrich, had children. Part II
contains the family lineage and descendants.
In addition to his duties as a merchant, postmaster, and
father, Paxton was active in the Gettysburg community. He was
ordained as an elder in the Lower Marsh Creek Presbyterian Church
on June 30, 1889, and served as Clerk of Session, the highest
office in a local Presbyterian church, from 1901 through 1912.
Paxton also served with distinction for a number of years as a
Director of the now defunct Gettysburg National Bank.
Bigham Family Ties
Hugh Paxton with Mac hitched to the buggy.
Photo was taken at the Greenmont store when he was Postmaster
In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the Bigham
families were very close. What affected one affected them all. It
seems there were always relatives living in the Bigham house,
including Paxton's widowed mother, Agnes Bigham, who died December
In 1865, Paxton's youngest brother, Rush, married Emma Hunter,
and lived with her on their Freedom Township farm, but in 1870,
Emma died from tuberculosis. From then until June 6, 1874, Rush
lived with his brother, Paxton, until Rush, too, succumbed to
Adding to that misfortune, James Bigham, the second brother in
the family, developed tuberculosis. James wished to prolong his
life by changing from the hard work of a farmer to an easier
existence in town, so he sold his share of the common property to
his brother, John. James moved his family to Gettysburg and set
himself up in the warehouse business. William, who had once been
James' guardian, felt obligated to sign on James' note as a silent
partner. Banks were not used for capital at this time.
James had no head for business and very shortly the warehouse
failed. Bigham family custom forbade bankruptcy, so William made
John's notes good. Relatives and friends helped out by buying
James' warehouse and home. William, who over the years had
acquired a number of properties, sold them all. Lastly, Paxton and
John bought the very farm on which their brother William lived.
Thus the Bighams built up a lasting reputation for financial
integrity. William's sons, Charles, Marshal, and James, remained
at home and worked to help their father become solvent again.
Before William died, he was able to repay Paxton and John; then he
deeded his farm to his sons, Charles and Marshal.
After his business failure, James moved to Cumberland Township,
but continued as an agent for a farm machinery company. In search
of a more healthful climate, he and his family migrated to Kansas
about 1879. After continual illnesses, James finally died of
tuberculosis in Denver in 1899.
An interesting note in the Gettysburg Compiler for April 23,
1921, makes record of the death on April 17 of Miss Anna [Anne]
Elizabeth Rhodes, formerly of Greenmount, who spent more than 50
years of her life in the employ of the Paxton Bigham family.
Like many veterans of that day and ever since, Bigham would
remember his military life with nostalgia. "Nothing ever tasted as
good," he would recall, "as those early breakfasts around the
campfire." Those breakfasts he would describe as consisting of
thick slices of bread spread with brown sugar, and to drink, hot
black coffee, very sweet.
"He wouldn't like that now," his wife Elizabeth would remark
aside. "He wouldn't want his coffee without cream, or with sugar,
or in a tin cup."
The truth of the matter probably was that for Paxton Bigham, in
his early twenties, serving a scant eight months, partly on scout
duty in his own territory, the war had certain elements of a romp
in the park. One heard far less of his experiences as a nurse on a
Stories of Horses and War
As with any hero or semi-hero, tales of adventure inevitably
arise. The author cannot verify these stories associated with
Paxton Bigham. Some appear to be based on facts, while others
are more nebulous. Some were told by Paxton for years in his
general store in Greenmount.
A Sleeping Cow. One of the duties of Capt. Bell's
cavalry troop of Home Guards was to patrol the roads watching
for raiders from the South. One evening, Paxton and two other
soldiers were galloping along the Bull Frog Road in Freedom
Township, with Paxton in the middle and a soldier on either
side. They approached a cow sleeping in the middle of the
one-track road. As Paxton jumped his horse over the cow, the cow
stood up, causing the horse to fall and its rider to tumble with
it. Because of injuries sustained in the fall, Paxton walked
with a slight limp for the rest of his life.
Under the Brush. Paxton Bigham was involved in the
capture of some Confederate deserters who had taken refuge under
a large brush pile in a field. Addressing the brush pile, Bigham
commanded, "Come out or I'll fire," and reached for his
revolver. His holster was empty; the revolver had fallen out
with his horse's last high jump. The deserters, however, came
meekly out and surrendered,
Laggards in Peril. Bigham's horse saved his life one
time by leaping across a barrier of trees felled across the road
to halt the pursuing Confederates who had entered Gettysburg.
Paxton, like the rest of the recently enlisted company, was on
active scout duty, without uniform but bearing arms and subject
to the fate of a spy if captured. He had stayed behind the
others in the cavalry to find his younger brother, Rush, and by
the time the two were reunited, the road was blocked and the
pursuers close. Both Bigham horses, however, cleared the tangle
of treetops while the Confederates were obliged to rein up their
horses, not knowing if they were being led into a trap. By the
time the Rebels realized what had happened, Paxton and his
brother were far down the road and out of danger.
Bugle Call. Whether it was with this horse or another
with cavalry experience is not known, but there was one whose
training led to difficulties after the local battle was over.
Paxton Bigham could drive this horse in harness most places, but
in Gettysburg the bugles might sound at any moment among the
troops camped there. Then the old disciplines would take over
and the horse would begin cavalry maneuvers regardless of
harness, carriage, and commands to the contrary. Against the
bugle's strong authority, words were useless.
Mrs. Huge Paxton
(Elizabeth McCright) Bigham and Mr. Huge Paxton Bigham
The Twilight Years
Hard work and adventure eventually began to take their toll on
H. Paxton Bigham. In 1904, in his mid-sixties, he applied for a
disability pension. The records indicate that the disability did
not come about "through vicious habits," but do not state what the
disability was. A personal description of him in military papers
of that year indicate he was five feet, seven and one-half inches
tall, weighed 137 pounds, and had grey eyes, dark hair, and dark
When the Greenmount Post Office was discontinued in 1913, the
Bighams sold their property to John T. Weikert on October 13, and
went to live at 948-27th Avenue, Altoona, Pennsylvania, near their
daughter, Margaret Eliza. Margaret's husband, Dr. Samuel T. Knox,
had a drug store known as Canan-Knox Supply Company, which sold
medical supplies. Margaret and Samuel lived at 2626 Broad Avenue.
The Gettysburg Compiler for March 13, 1915, records the death
of Mrs. Paxton Bigham at her home the previous Saturday, March 6,
aged 77 years. This same account notes that Mr. and Mrs. Bigham
celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary in the summer of
Paxton Bigham spent his twilight years living with his
daughter, Jennie Belle Bigham, at 133 Norland Avenue,
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. A newspaper clipping of 1921 reads:
"Despite his eighty-one years, Mr. Bigham is enjoying the
very best of health and daily takes walks about the city. His
usual walks embrace from fifteen to twenty city blocks, but the
distance walked depends somewhat upon the weather."
H. Paxton Bigham died from pneumonia on September 23, 1926, at
age 85 years 9 months, and was buried in Lower Marsh Creek
Presbyterian Church Cemetery. There was no administrator for
Paxton Bigham's estate as he had no money, no real estate, no
personal property, no life insurance, and owed no money. His
physician was Dr. Peters; his nurses, Jennie and Margaret Straley.
His occupation was listed as retired; his pension $65 per month.
Franklin County paid $75 death benefits. The undertaker charged
$197, and Larry Hill charged $8 for digging the grave, of which
the U.S. Veterans Bureau paid $100.
Hugh Paxton Bigham was a success-oriented person who
accomplished much in his long and useful life. He will always be
remembered for destiny's decree that he, for a few fleeting
moments, was in the presence of, and responsible for the life of,
a man who authored one of the most famous pieces of literature the
world has ever known.
The H. Paxton Bigham Portraits
Portraits of Paxton Bigham continue to keep his memory alive.
The first painting was commissioned by Gettysburg attorney Homer
N. Young and rendered by John R. Pierce. Mr. Young donated the
painting to the Gettysburg National Bank, as Paxton had been a
Years later, as local rumor has it, Clarence A. Wills became
President of the bank and "would have nothing to do with anyone
named Bigham." Consequently the painting wound up in a closet.
When Homer Young found out about this, he retrieved the
painting and put it back in his own home. John C. Bigham of
Rochester, Michigan, great-nephew of Paxton Bigham and stepson of
Mr. Young, in a letter to Arthur Weaner of the Adams County
Historical Society dated December 9, 1963, stated:
Before his [Paxton Bigham's] death and even before my
mother's, Mrs. Young, the painting was offered to me, but as I
wanted them to keep it, I passed up bringing it back to the
Detroit area. After Mr. Young's death, my wife and I were in
Gettysburg the following May and were looking for the portrait.
An antique dealer near Meade School (Selmar Hess) told us he
purchased the home and contents from Mr. Young's daughter but
did not know of the painting.
The picture eventually came into the possession of Bill Shields
of Gettysburg, who telephoned attorney Franklin Bigham,
great-nephew of Paxton, to report that he had a painting of a
relative of his. Franklin Bigham purchased the portrait from
Shields, and as of this writing, it hangs in a third floor
conference room in the offices of Bigham & Raffensperger,
Attorneys, 16 Lincoln Square, in Gettysburg, on the southwest
quadrant of the Diamond.
According to Margaret Bigham Beitler, grandniece of Paxton, a
wax figure of her great-uncle, made from an old photo and clothed
in a uniform belonging to Paxton, once stood outside the door of
the Lincoln Room in the Wills House. After someone stole the
uniform, the figure was retired and the painting took its place.
By the late 1980s, L.E. Smith, a local entrepreneur, owned the
Wills House. At the time he conveyed the property to The Dwight D.
Eisenhower Society, his wife, Caroline, commissioned a local
artist, Freya Qually, to render a portrait of Sgt. Bigham to hang
on the wall outside the door where President Lincoln had entered
his bedroom. Working mostly from a poor quality photqgraph
furnished to her, Ms. Qually completed the portrait in 1987,
without ever having known of the earlier one. To this day, Sgt.
Bigham is still standing guard at Lincoln's bedroom door as he did
The letters of Major Bell,
Roster of Company B, 21st
Pa Cavalry, Monuments of